Thin loaves of bread

Thin loaves of bread, their benefits, baking technology and equipment



  Company Brus Technologies decided to change the size of the existing loaves of bread, baking technology and equipment for a significant reduction of:

- emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere when during the process of baking loaves of bread;

  - energy consumption;

- the amount of waste;

- consumption of bread.

For these purposes, new thin loaves of bread, new baking technology, equipment and tools have been developed. Many experiments have been carried out and the effectiveness of thin loaves of bread and slices of bread for food has been proven. Slices of thin bread can completely replace existing sandwich breads.

Importantly, such thin bread has a unique taste, increased nutritional and therapeutic value, new functionality.

Brus Technologies wants to offer:

For bread consumers - a fundamentally new bread that has many advantages over existing bread.

For bread producers in bakeries and at home - fundamentally new equipment and tools for its production.

Unusual sizes of thin bread - we called it "Lechem", and fast baking opened up new possibilities and many new properties.


1. Technological advantages of thin bread


1.1. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and food waste


1.1.1.  Greenhouse gases, food waste and loaves of bread


A significant amount of greenhouse gases is emitted into the atmosphere during the baking of bread by industrial bakeries, mini-bakeries, and during home-made bread baking.

It is known that when baking a loaf of bread weighing 800 grams, it emits about 250 grams of carbon dioxide.

Baking loaves of bread, for example, requires about 2,000 gigawatt hours (GWh) in bakeries in the UK each year, which equates to about 570,000 tons of CO2 emissions.

Waste from existing loaves of bread also produces significant amounts of greenhouse gases. But this is not CO2, this is methane.

It is known that methane 80 times exceeds the atmospheric warming power of СО2.

The crusts that wind up in landfills go through a process called anaerobic decomposition.

This process releases 8.3 pounds of methane per 100 pounds of crusts.

1.2 billion crusts are thrown away each year in the UK.


This is about 4 million tons of crusts, which release 330,000 tons of methane at the landfill.

Sources of greenhouse gases in bakeries are provers, ovens and coolers, steam boilers.

The largest single site energy consumer in bakeries is the baking oven.

Attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in bakeries by upgrading equipment do not lead to tangible results.


1.1.2.  Analysis of the thermal process while baking a loaf of bread


Why Lechem bread is baked so fast?

To bake a loaf of bread from a portion of dough, you must first heat this portion of dough in the oven to the temperature the dough turns into bread, and then maintain this temperature for some time.

The surface of the dough portion in the oven heats up quickly.

The middle of the dough portion heats up the slowest. Distance from the surface of the dough to the center (O), for a loaf of bread 0.8-1 kg. is 50-70 mm. The center heats up to the temperature of the beginning of the transformation of the dough into bread in 20-30 minutes.

The reason is the low thermal conductivity of the dough and the large distance from the surface of the dough to the center O.

When baking thin bread, the center of the dough portion is at a distance of 4-8 mm from the surface of the dough portion. Therefore, the dough in the center heats up quickly and baking such bread is 3-6 times faster than baking a regular loaf of bread.

Thus, the duration of heating a dough portion under all conditions being equal depends on the distance from the edge of the dough portion to its center. The larger the dough portion, the greater the distance from the

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surface of the dough to the center and the longer it takes to heat the central part of the dough.

A loaf of thin bread is baked several times faster than a regular loaf of the same weight.


Heating and baking the center of the dough and of its surface

1.1.3.   Our solution


It has always been like this - a large portion of bread (a loaf) is baked  then it is cut into slices for consumption

The new solution is to bake a thin loaf of bread about the thickness of the food slices. And don't change the weight of the loaf. You can also bake separately portions of bread that are equal to the slices for food.

Lechem - Baked thin bread, with same crust on both sides, thickness equal or less than of a traditional bread slice. Baking in mini bakeries and at home.


1.2. Advantages of thin bread baking technology – significant reduction of energy intensity, greenhouse gases, and food waste


- The thin bread is baked 3-6 times faster than a regular bread loaf of the same weight.

- The consumption of electricity, gas, or diesel fuel used for baking is reduced by 3-6 times;

- greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 3-6 times;

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- Freezing and defrosting is 3-6 times faster;

- Cooling after baking in refrigerators or in separate rooms is 3-6 times faster.

Thin sandwich bread has no crust.

This means that the slices do not need to be separated and discarded when preparing the sandwiches. No need to throw away the two edible bread ends. That is, food waste from loaves of bread will be significantly reduced.

Methane emissions into the atmosphere will also be significantly reduced since there will be no rotting crusts.

Calculations for two countries are given as an example.

If in the future only 5% of loaves of bread will be baked according to our technology, then this will reduce emissions into the atmosphere and energy consumption by about the following values during the year.

There is also a financial benefit in reducing baking times due to the reduction in energy consumption and in the volume of labor.


2. Reducing the amount of bread in sandwiches

 As much as one would like to reduce the amount of bread in sandwiches and reduce the thickness of slices of bread in sandwiches - this cannot be done, because a slice of bread is not just a part of a sandwich, it is also a "container" for the filling of the sandwich.


Now the minimum thickness of slices of bread in sandwiches is limited to about 8-10 mm. A reduced thickness of slices in sandwiches will lead to bent and crumbled sandwich which would not be able to hold the filling.

Existing thin slices of bread sag and do not hold the filling

Therefore, the minimum thickness of slices of bread in sandwiches is now limited to the thickness that prevents the slices of bread from bending during meals and prevents the filling from falling out.

Thin slices of bread 2-5 mm thick. in sandwiches does not exist yet for this reason.

A loaf of bread cannot be cut into such thin slices. When cut into thin slices, they will crumble and bend. Therefore, the machines for cutting loaves of bread into slices are designed so that they can cut slices of bread at least 8 mm thick.

As a result, there is more bread in modern sandwiches than is necessary. And there is no way to reduce the amount of bread in sandwiches. So, the proportion between the amount of filling and the amount of bread is violated.

Thin bread allows you to use 2-6 mm thick slices of bread in sandwiches.

Such sandwiches do not crumble or change shape in the hands of a person. Thin-sliced sandwiches contain 2-3 times less bread than existing ones.

This means that the person will eat less bread and get fewer calories.


Lechem thin slice does not sag

Sandwich with Lechem Bread weight 20 grams

Tradition   sandwich Bread weight 40 grams

Two sandwiches for comparison. 8сm х 8сm.

If in the future only 5% of loaves of bread will be baked according to our technology, then due to the use of thin bread in sandwiches, the consumption of bread during the year in the UK will decrease by 30,000 tons, and in the USA by 190,000 tons.


3. Convenience of use


Lechem thin bread is an instant food product without waste.

Fast and easy homemade baking, for the first time you can have fresh bread with every meal.

From ready-to-bake dough or from frozen dough, you can bake fresh Lechem in few minutes. To do this, you need to put the finished dough or dough from the freezer into the baking device and turn it on.

For these purposes, it is necessary to organize the sale of frozen dough sheets and frozen partially baked thin bread to consumers, as well as partially baked thin bread for cafes, restaurants, and shops.

Partially baked Lechem from the freezer is baked in only 2-3 minutes.

- Baking frozen dough takes only 5-10 minutes.

- Proofing and baking takes only 25-40 minutes.

It is convenient to bake thin bread even in small portions.


4. Varieties of thin bread

Thin breads can be baked with different crust thickness and soft crumb.

Alternatively - energy bars with a minimum amount of bread.

These slices will not crumble. They may contain filling.

Easy and simple to bake with different flavors and fillings.

   Bread pockets of different sizes for filling toppings.

Comparison of a portions of bread in baguette and thin sandwiches.

You can bake slices with a shoulder so that the filling does not fall out.


5. Aplication of Lechem


Lechem for healthy, dietary and therapeutic nutrition

The attraction of thin bread sandwiches is that there is much less bread in sandwiches. This means that a person gets fewer calories from food.

Now it is possible to bake small portions of bread with various additives.

 Gluten-free Lechem acquires a new flavor.

In the usual baking, gluten-free bread often turns out to be damp, but Lechem has a tasty golden crust and a drier, softer middle. Lechem from germinated grain, soybeans, barley, lentils can help maintain low blood sugar and is perfect for individuals with Celiac’s disease or gluten sensitivity.

Lechem will be very useful for pregnant and lactating mothers.

For example, whole-grain Lechem baked with cheese filling contains a lot of protein, calcium, and fiber needed during pregnancy. Lechem with almonds is rich in vitamin E, potassium, magnesium, and heart healthy monounsaturated fats. Whole grain Lechem with yoghurt, and whole grain Lechem bars with nuts are useful for nursing mothers.

 Bread bars as snacks, bread energy bars.

 They are similar to commercially available energy bars and snack bars, and include various nuts and seeds (cashews, almonds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, etc.) But this substrate in Lechem is bonded with a small amount of bread and does not contain sugar. The advantage is that Lechem makes such bars softer, more aromatic and healthier.

The nutritional value of Lechem is significantly higher compared to regular   bread.

Lechem's short cooking time and reduced heat effects on the dough retain nutrients. Keep in mind that higher temperature and longer baking time destroy vitamins, minerals and microorganisms (probiotics). Lechem is baked in just a few minutes and at a lower temperature, and the healthy nutrients are retained.

Cooking with fresh herbs.

 Due to the short baking time, it was possible to use fresh spicy and medicinal herbs, sea kale, and other valuable ingredients in the dough. As

a result, Lechem has a delicate flavor. Fresh herbs also contain valuable nutrients and antioxidants.

Note that fresh herbs are not used when baking ordinary bread, because their taste and medicinal properties are destroyed due to the long baking time.

Baking Lechem with natural ingredients - vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts.

 This is a tasty, healthy and healing bread. Instead of water, vegetable products are mashed and added to flour while kneading dough. The nutritional value of such bread is characterized by a high content of nutrients contained in the raw materials. Such bread can be the main source of vitamins, minerals, nutrients, and fiber. It is especially healthy for children and the elderly.

Lechem baking with cannabis.

Cannabis is used to alleviate pain and treat a number of diseases, and Lechem with cannabis is an excellent option for adult consumers in jurisdictions where cannabis is legal. Lechem with cannabis is a good choice for adults who use cannabis for medicinal or recreational purposes.-Baking Lechem with liquid additives, such as

 coffee, green tea, chicken broth, juices, etc.


6. Reduced proofing time


Now dough (5) is placed in the baking dish (4) on the bottom (6) and the dough rises to the top (position 8).

Lechem bread dough (5) is placed in a baking dish (9), closer to the top of the mold.  When proofing, the upper part of the dough (5) rises up at a speed (7). The lower part of the test (5) goes down at a speed (9) greater than the speed of rise to the top, due to the influence of gravity.

Comparison of the existing method of proofing the dough in the form - ( a) with the new proofing method developed in this project (b).

a - Dough 5 is placed on the bottom of the mold before proofing.

b - Dough 5 is placed in the middle of the mold before proofing.


Thus, the dough not only rises up, but also falls down during proofing. As a result, the dough expands 20% of the time faster due to gravity.


7. Lechem Proofing and Baking Equipment


More than ten prototypes and minimum viable products (MVP) have been created.

These are various toasters for baking thin bread. Bakeware and tools. More than a hundred different teflon coated designs have been tested.


Technologies for baking various types of thin bread have been developed.

The following MVPs were developed in the project:

1. Thin bread with the same top and bottom crust from different ingredients.

2. Bags for bread.

3. Sandwiches with reduced bread content.

4. Toasters and molds of various designs for mini-bakeries and home use, in which the dough can be simultaneously raised not only up, but also down, and then baked.

A prototype of an automatic line is currently being developed.


Toaster for proofing proving and baking thin bread

1 - Baking a continuous belt of bread 10 mm thick with the same surfaces on both sides;

2 - Cutting the bread ribbon into slices;

3 - Assembling the slices into a loaf;

4 - Packing the loaf;

5 – Use

Baking thin bread in an automatic line.


8. Innovations


For the first time, thin bread has been developed, which has a number of advantages over existing bread, and the development of fundamentally new equipment for its production has begun.

1. Automatic line for baking thin bread.

In the automatic line a continuous belt of bread is baked, which after baking is automatically cut into slices for consumption.  The slices are collected together, form a loaf and packed.

Reference: in all existing automatic lines each dough product (loaves of bread, baguettes, buns) is separated from one another. The finished loaf of bread is cut into slices.

For baking bread, conveyor belts made of thin stainless steel sheet covered with a non-stick coating are used.

Reference. All existing automatic lines do not use stainless steel sheet conveyor belts for baking.

The heating of the dough belt for proofing and baking is carried out through the metal of the conveyor belt.

              Reference. In all existing automatic lines, heating during proofing and baking is carried out in the oven through the air space.

In our construction of the conveyor and of our other devices created by us, the dough not only rises up, but also falls down during proofing. As a result, the dough expands faster due to gravity. This also saves time in the production of bread.

Reference. Always, the dough rises only to the top during proofing.

An automatic line using the above innovations will have the following advantages over existing ones.

- A continuous belt of bread is baked 3-6 times faster than regular bread.

- Electricity consumption is 3-6 times less.

- The design of the automatic line is much simpler than that of the existing automatic lines for baking bread. These machines are cheaper.

- Maintenance becomes easier and the number of maintenance personnel is reduced.

- The production area is much smaller.


2. Appliances for baking thin bread in mini bakeries and at home.

Toasters of various types receive additional functions - to carry out proofing of the dough and subsequent baking of thin bread.

Baking devices allow proofing the dough and baking thin bread in household and professional ovens.

3. Thin loaves of bread

Thin breads are baked 3-6 times faster than regular breads (of the same weight). Its properties and capabilities are given in the text above.




A  thin loaf of bread is:

- Fast cooking food;

- Less bread consumption;

- Better Nutrition;

- Better Environment;

- Wasteless  bread.

Faster and cheaper bread making process

The following customers will benefit from having these products:

1. Consumers of bread.

2. Consumers who want to bake thin bread at home. In this case a consumer needs household baking appliances.

3. Bakery factories, bakeries and mini-bakeries. They need thin bread baking equipment - automatic lines, industrial and household toasters, bakeware, matching tools.

Hopefully, bakeries will gradually move to baking thin loaves. Such a solution will significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce the consumption of electricity, natural gases, oil products, reduce food waste, and reduce the consumption of bread.

BRUS Technologies

development and planning of unique technologies